To my knowledge, "Fury AI" is a preset configuration to the AI table, The game engine is capable of having AI that is smarter/different then the AI ships are in the retail game, there are now a ton of table settings to adjust the AI in very specific ways, but these are all off by default, (and very complicated to fiddle with) a user named Fury made a set of preset AI settings that are meant to be a harder-more intelligent version of the regular Freespace AI.
Fury AI makes fighters more aggressive, better at saving and using ammo, and better about using certain weapons in situations where they are more useful. However it can also cause the AI to bump into things more.
In theory there are many more ways to configure the AI, but most mods that change the AI just use Fury's preset.
I Think this is the correct explanation. Sorry if I got anything wrong.