Bombers just don't nearly have the same niche in the GTVA.
That's not to say that the GTVA can't take tactics from it's opponents and work on them - the TEI is a pretty good example, in my opinion. They took what they learnt from Shivan corvette and destroyer tactics and then ran with it - who's to say they wouldn't recognise the abilities that the UEF Bombers have and work to upgrade/enhance their own bombers?
From a certain point of view, a loss of a wing of bombers for the destruction of a Corvette (or larger) class ship is a fairly good (well, except for the poor bomber pilots) trade on the strategic, cost, infrastructure, and morale levels, assuming you can develop bombers that aren't ridiculously expensive for the work they do.
I think the question isn't 'will they', it's more 'do they have time to design and then rush new bombers in to the Sol theatre?'
E: sorry, missed the 'assuming they win the war militarily' bit, this is a question about after the war? Then yeah, I think they definitely will. If for no other reason than the UEF has demonstrated a potential weakness of the shock jump & beam spam strategies in regards to AWACS jamming.